Tag Archives: online learning

Cabaran Pembelajaran Online – Cadangan Mengatasinya

Pembelajaran online

Pembelajaran online mula digunakan seiring dengan perkembangan internet. Istilah pembelajaran online sering dikaitkan dengan istilah-istilah seperti e-pembelajaran (e-learning), pembelajaran jarak jauh (PJJ) dan sebagainya. Pembelajaran online adalah sama seperti pembelajaran biasa yang melibatkan komunikasi antara tenaga pengajar dengan pelajar tetapi yang membezakannya ialah mereka tidak bertemu secara bersemuka malah bertemu melalui ruang maya. Selain itu, penilaian dan pemantauan oleh tenaga pengajar juga dilakukan seperti pembelajaran biasa.

Susulan dari penularan wabak Covid-19 pada masa kini, pembelajaran online kini diperluaskan dan kebanyakkannya (dari Institut Pengajian Tinggi ke Institut Latihan Kemahiran) sehingga penghujung tahun 2020 ini.  Namun begitu, terdapat beberapa cabaran dalam mengaplikasikan pembelajaran online ini.

Cabaran pembelajaran online – pelajar

1.      Capaian kepada kemudahan internet

Program perisian dan sambungan ke internet adalah aspek yang paling penting dalam kelas dalam talian ini. Pelajar perlu membeli perisian terkini untuk mengakses program dalam talian mereka, atau membayar tambahan untuk menaik taraf ke internet berkelajuan tinggi. Ini mungkin menyukarkan pelajar yang kurang berkemampuan untuk belajar secara berkesan kerana kekurangan kemudahan akses internet berbanding dengan mereka yang mampu membeli segala perisian serta internet berkelajuan tinggi.

2.      Tiada kemudahan komputer/telefon bimbit

Bagi pelajar yang kurang berkemampuan, yang tiada kemudahan gajet ini pasti menyukarkan mereka untuk mengikuti segala pembelajaran dalam talian yang diusahakan oleh para pengajar dan seterusnya akan menyebabkannya ketinggalan berbanding rakan-rakan yang lain.

3.      Suasana pembelajaran yang tidak kondusif untuk belajar. 

Bagi pelajar yang kurang berkemampuan pasti menghadapi masalah ini apabila melaksanakan tugasan dari rumah.  Masalah ini meliputi suasana persekitaran yang bising, tempat yang sempit serta tiada meja dan kerusi yang sesuai.

Cabaran pembelajaran online - tidak kondusif

Cadangan untuk 1-3: Semua pelajar patut diberi pilihan untuk pulang ke kampus dan bukannya cuma 5 kategori pelajar yang dibenarkan (termasuk pelajar tahun akhir atau pelajar penyelidikan).
Ataupun Kementerian Pendidikan dan Kementerian Sumber Manusia bantu dari segi pemberian/subsidi komputer/gajet yang diperlukan untuk pembelajaran efektif (cara ini tak begitu praktikal kerana ia makan belanja kerajaan yang banyak)

4.      Keberkesanan pembelajaran          

Pembelajaran online juga tidak mendisiplin pelajar dan bersikap sambil lewa kerana pembelajaran adalah mengikut kesesuaian masa mereka. Seterusnya, tenaga pengajar tidak akan tahu akan kemampuan para pelajarnya kerana tidak bersemuka dan berbincang secara perseorangan. 
Komunikasi juga tidak berkesan semasa pembentangan online kerana mungkin kelajuan internet tidak begitu memuaskan.

Cadangan: Pengajar perlu tegas dalam menetapkan masa pembelajaran online, khasnya untuk subjek-subjek tertentu yang memerlukan interaksi pengajar/pelajar atau pelajar/pelajar.
Pembentangan juga boleh dirakam melalui video terdahulu dan dihantar kepada pengajar kerana ia lebih berkesan.

5.      Penyalahgunaan Internet

Oleh kerana pembelajaran maya adalah berasaskan penggunaan internet, maka para pelajar akan terdedah dengan berbagai-bagai maklumat yang benar dan tidak benar, yang baik dan tidak baik yang disampaikan melalui internet.  Tidak dinafikan terdapat begitu banyak maklumat yang baik dan positif yang boleh dimanfaatkan oleh pelajar dalam meningkatkan ilmu dan pengetahuan mereka.  Namun demikian terdapat banyak perkara yang boleh melalaikan dan menyeronokkan terutamanya kepada golongan muda.  Diantaranya ialah permain games yang berbagai bentuk dan boleh dimuat turun secara percuma, juga online chatting yang membincangkan perkara-perkara yang tidak berfaedah seperti gossip, hiburan dan sebagainya.  Sekiranya para pelajar terlalu asyik dengan internet atau ketagihan internet, ia akan memberi kesan yang tidak baik terhadap hubungan sosial di dalam masyarakat.

How to Overcome Internet Addiction (with Pictures) - wikiHow

Cadangan: 1. Senaraikan perkara yang anda suka buat tetapi tidak dapat buat kerana masa tidak cukup kerana ketagihan internet.
2. Sediakan jadual pembelajaran serta masa berhibur (tak kira media sosial ataupun games) dan disiplinkan diri untuk mengikutinya.
3. Guna external stopper seperti jam loceng atau aplikasi@app tertentu yang akan menutup akses internet anda pada masa yang telah ditentukan.
4. Jauhi dari sebarang laman web, media sosial, aplikasi@app ataupun games tertentu yang anda tahu sudah menjadi tabiat anda.
5. Guna kad peringatan atau sticky note dan letak di tempat berdekatan/depan komputer/talian bimbit anda.
Mesej seperti: Saya tidak dapat main bola (sukan yang anda suka) sekiranya saya main PUBG online game melebihi xx jam.
6. Bersenam dapat menjadikan anda sihat, menaikkan mood anda, meningkatkan keyakinan diri, tidur lebih baik dsbgnya. Dengan banyak kelebihan ini, pasti anda tidak ingin terlepas dari bersenam kan? Ia dapat mengurangkan ketagihan internet anda.

Centre for Foundation Studies (CFS) - Universiti Tun Abdul Razak@Unirazak

Cabaran pengajaran online – pengajar

1.      Kepakaran tenaga pengajar menggunakan peralatan teknologi dan inovasi.

Dalam dunia yang serba moden ini, perkembangan teknologi sememangnya berkembang dengan pesatnya.  Justeru itu, pengajar perlu mengusai kaedah terbaik bagi penggunaan teknologi agar sesi pengajaran dan pembelajaran dapat sampai dengan berkesan kepada para pelajar. Namun, ia juga bergantung kepada infrastruktur Institusi Pendidikan/Kemahiran yang terlibat.

Contohnya, Universiti Tun Abdul Razak @ Unirazak adalah Universiti pertama di Malaysia yang melabur dan integrasikan Canvas* LMS dalam UNIRAZAK Online Experience @ platform UROX pada tahun 2018.
* Canvas adalah global leader in Learning Management Systems@LMS, di mana ia digunakan di lebih dari 3,000 buah universiti dan institusi di seluruh dunia.

Pengajaran & pembelajaran online melalui UROX - Universiti Tun Abdul Razak

2.      Capaian kepada kemudahan internet

Program perisian dan sambungan ke internet adalah aspek yang paling penting dalam kelas dalam talian ini. Pengajar perlu membeli perisian terkini untuk mengakses program dalam talian mereka, atau membayar tambahan untuk menaik taraf ke internet berkelajuan tinggi.  Mungkin, terdapat gangguan talian internet semasa pengajaran sedang dilakukan seterusnya menggangu proses penyampaian maklumat kepada para pelajar.

3.      Suasana pembelajaran yang tidak kondusif untuk mengajar

Seperti sedia maklum, para pengajar pasti menghadapi masalah ini apabila melaksanakan tugasan dari rumah.  Masalah ini meliputi suasana persekitaran yang bising, tempat yang sempit serta tiada meja dan kerusi yang sesuai.

Cabaran ini boleh dikatakan sudah tiada memandangkan rata-ratanya pengajar sudah boleh balik ke institusi masing-masing yang sepatutnya ada persekitaran yang kondusif.

4.      Pengajar terpaksa mengurus anak-anak di rumah

Bagi pengajar yang telah berkeluarga pula, terutama yang mempunyai anak kecil, pasti sedikit kesukaran apabila terpaksa mengurus anak-anak sambil mengajar.  Mereka perlu membuat jadual pengurusan yang betul agar sesi pengajaran berjalan lancar tanpa gangguan.

Cabaran ini juga rata-ratanya sudah dapat diatasi mulai 1hb Julai 2020, kecuali masih ada lagi yang bimbang untuk hantar anaknya ke prasekolah & tadika dan ibu bapa terpaksa bergilir-gilir jaga anak di rumah.

Cabaran pengajaran dan pembelajaran online di rumah

5.      Keberkesanan penyampaian dan pengajaran

Pembelajaran dan pengajaran secara online juga tidak mendisiplin pelajar dan bersikap sambil lewa kerana pembelajaran adalah mengikut kesesuaian masa mereka. Seterusnya, tenaga pengajar tidak akan tahu akan kemampuan para pelajarnya kerana tidak bersemuka dan berbincang secara perseorangan. Juga, pengajaran program kemahiran@TVET adalah terhad kerana cuma 30% sahaja adalah teori sementara selebihnya memerlukan demo, membetulkan teknik pelajar mengendalikan sesuatu peralatan atau subjek (contohnya urutan).

Cadangan: Mungkin sesetengah subjek boleh menggunakan teknologi AR (Augmented Reality) dan/atau VR (Virtual Reality) untuk menyampaikan pengajaran dengan lebih berkesan dan menarik. Namun, kos pelaksanaannya mungkin diluar kemampuan kebanyakkan institusi Pendidikan/kemahiran.

Kesimpulannya:
Anda kena seimbangkan dan menyesuaikan diri dengan cara pembelajaran norma baru ini. Pada pendapat saya, pembelajaran campuran (blended learning) patut diberi perhatian kerana ia membawa kelebihan pembelajaran online serta bersemuka.

Contohnya, program URise* menggunakan sistem Canvas LMS @ UROX di Universiti Tun Abdul Razak@Unirazak yang diperkayakan dengan kelas bersemuka bulanan pada hujung minggu memberi peluang kepada pemegang:

  • Sijil Kemahiran Malaysia/Sijil Vokasional Malaysia dan setara;
  • Diploma Kemahiran Malaysia/Diploma Vokasional Malaysia dan setara;
  • Sijil TVET lain seperti Kolej Komuniti dan Politeknik
  • Pekerja industri teknikal yang berpengalaman tetapi tidak bersijil

untuk memperolehi Diploma Profesional & Ijazah Eksekutif dalam masa yang singkat serta pembelajaran yang fleksibel.

URise Program
*URise program adalah kolaborasi antara Unirazak & ISE Education Sdn Bhd – khas untuk pemegang SKM/SVM/DKM/DVM/TVET
UNIRAZAK
ISE Education Logo

Online studies at University (IPT) till end of 2020

PdP
Image credit: master1305 – www.freepik.com

KUALA LUMPUR: All institutions of higher learning (IPT) are to conduct teaching and learning activities (PdP – Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran) online until Dec 31, although certain students will be allowed to be on campus.

Image may contain: text
Image may contain: text

The Higher Education Ministry in a statement today said all face-to-face PdP activities were not allowed but exemptions would be given to five categories of students to return to their campuses in stages.

Postgraduate research students in public universities (IPTA) and private higher learning institutions (IPTS) are now allowed to return to campuses, although this is only for those who are required to be there (eg design studio, workshop, laboratory) or requiring special equipment to conduct research.

Students in the remaining four categories are allowed to resume their PdP, subject to the conditional movement control order (CMCO) to be lifted.

They are:

  • i. Special needs students in the Technical and Vocational Training (TVET) programmes at Polytechnics and Community Colleges who require a face-to-face learning platform to complete the PdP process. As early as Aug 1.
  • ii. Final year/semester students without a conducive environment or access to equipment for online classes as early as July 1.
  • iii. Final year/semester certificate, diploma and degree students who need to conduct clinical and practical work or require special equipment. This category of students is allowed to carry out the PdP in their respective campuses as early as July 1.
  • iv. All new intake students under the 2020/21 academic session at all public (IPTA) and private universities (IPTS), Polytechnics and Community Colleges for the certificate, foundation and diploma entry-levels involving Sijil Pelajaran Malaysia (SPM) leavers. It also involves Sijil Tinggi Persekolahan Malaysia (STPM) holders who will be entering first degree programmes. The students in this category will restart their PdP based on the schedule below:

a. Certificate and diploma-level students at polytechnics and community colleges will begin on July 1.

b.Foundation, certificate, diploma and bachelors degree students from IPTS will begin on July 1.

c. Foundation and diploma students in public universities will be allowed as early as Aug 1.

d. Bachelors degree and post-graduate research students in public and private universities (IPTA & IPTS) will only be as early as Oct 1.

All academic activities which are to resume in campuses must comply to the standard operating procedures (SOPs) which have been enforced by the authorities.

Comment: Now we would be closely watching and waiting for Department of Skills Development to announce when can all the public & private TVET/JPK Accredited centres resume their classes in the centre.

Update: Department of Skills Development (DSD) has finally come out with their circular with regards to PdP@P&P on 29/5/20. Read more here.

TVET/skills training goes online

Developing Leadership Skills via Online Learning

SKILLS training institutes and providers are ready for online learning to be their ‘new normal’.

On April 13, public and private technical and vocational education and training (TVET) providers were given the green light to conduct their training and theory courses online due to the movement control order (MCO).

TVET action committee chairman Nordin Abdul Malek said the guideline is important as it provides direction on implementing programmes that are mainly practical in nature, via e-learning.

“Our hands-on programmes make up 70% of the syllabus.

“Without a guideline, it will be difficult for us to adhere to the systems and standards of the National Occupational Skills Standards (NOSS).

“We hope this guideline, although only applicable during the MCO, will be used as a benchmark for relevant agencies within the sector to recognise the rigorous training process our students’ go through.”

E-learning, he said, allows skills training institutes and providers to adapt to the assessment of students by external examiners.

“It should be part of our training system even after the pandemic blows over.

“The Human Resources Ministry department of skills development (JPK) should formally implement this system as internationally, institutes are starting to recognise e-learning for skills training, ” he said, adding that many local providers have the facilities to conduct online learning with platforms like Whatsapp, Zoom and Skype.

Nordin believes e-training should be the ‘new normal’ in Malaysia’s skills training system.

We must act now and see how we can best utilise e-learning in TVET, he said.

Describing virtual education as a teaching methodology for tomorrow, he said e-learning management, teaching and assessment, must however, be improved.

“Related agencies too should consider e-learning as part of the entire training process, ” he said, noting that at least 90% of courses like IT, programming, management systems and administrative management, can be done online.

After the guideline was issued, Nordin said a survey was conducted among private skills training institutes on how they ran their courses online.

“We found that most of them do not have issues conducting online learning and training, and that their students are comfortable with this method as they are accustomed to using gadgets and social media.

“For them, it’s new and fun, ” he said, adding that these institutes recorded an improved e-learning participation rate, with at least 75% of their students joining the sessions.

The guideline is a good initiative, Federation of JPK Accredited Centres (FeMac) president P. Sailanathan said, as it ensures that there will be no serious disruption to learning.

This, he said, is a good time for skills training institutes to embark on technological changes.

“Students are more tech savvy these days. Online learning provides room for freedom on how students want to learn.

“Skills training institutes must ensure that online classes are attractive enough to capture their students’ attention. Going digital is the way forward

Change, he said, is inevitable with the fourth industrial revolution and we must adapt or risk losing out.

ALL theory and practical components of TVET can be conducted online if they meet the Performance Criteria and Assessment Criteria, Human Resources Ministry department of skills development (JPK) director-general Zaihan Shukri said.

These criteria which are listed in a guideline, he said, involve safety, attitude and application of equipment aspects as set out in the National Occupational Skills Standards.

Home-based skills teaching and training must:

> ensure that the teaching and learning processes are carried out as planned in a safe environment.

> be effectively implemented during the MCO period by the institutes’ management.

> be a collaborative effort between parents or guardians and the institutes to ensure the continuity of students’ training and learning despite them not attending classes.

> be conducted on the training institutes’ premises after the MCO, if it is not carried out via e-learning.

> involve appropriate learning methods based on the capabilities and readiness of the trainees; using easily accessible communication and application platforms.

Source: TheStar.com.my

Night TVET classes for working community

Human Resources minister M. Kulasegaran and Japanese Ambassador to Malaysia Dr Makio Miyagawa at a ceremony to celebrate Japanese Foreign Ministry commendation to Japan-Malaysia Technical Institute (JMTI) for promotion of economic relations between Japan and Malaysia at JMTI in Lorong Bukit Minyak. NSTP/RAMDZAN MASIAM.By Balvin Kaur – April 7, 2019 @ 4:37pm

BUKIT MERTAJAM: The Human Resources Ministry is encouraging technical and vocational education and training (TVET) institutions to provide night classes for the working class community.

Its Minister M. Kulasegaran said the current operation hours were 8am to 5pm but the ministry encouraged the institutions to extend the operational hours for another six hours by remaining open until 11pm.

“Eight to five are the normal working hours but we are now encouraging all TVET institutions to also operate from 5pm to 11pm to give opportunity for those working in nearby companies to continue their training to improve their skills.

“This is being done in other countries including Japan and even here at the Penang Skill Development Centre,” he told reporters after attending a ceremony to celebrate Japanese Foreign Ministry commendation to Japan-Malaysia Technical Institute (JMTI) for promotion of economic relations between Japan and Malaysia at JMTI in Lorong Bukit Minyak here today.

Also present were Finance Minister Lim Guan Eng and Japanese Ambassador to Malaysia Dr Makio Miyagawa.

Kulasegaran said the ministry had also suggested to Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) to continue working with JMTI as a regional training centre that runs JICA training programmes for participants in this region.

“I believe that this is significant as it lends credence to the name “Japan-Malaysia Technical Institute”,” he said.

He said he hoped JICA would continue to dispatch technical experts and senior volunteers to share knowledge with instructors from local institutions.

Meanwhile, Lim said in the Eleventh Malaysia Plan (11MP), it was targeted that the percentage of skilled workers would increase from 28 per cent to 35 per cent by 2020 but in order to achieve this, TVET sector needed to become a game changer so that it could easily meet the demand and requirement of the industry.

“The target is to increase TVET students annual intake gradually from 164,000 in 2013 to 225,000 in 2020,” he said.

Lim said government continued to place strong emphasis for improvement of TVET and had provided significant allocation for this year, totalling nearly RM170 million.

However, Lim said the government could no longer afford to provide large allocations to public institutions with regards to capital expenses such as buying new machines and equipment.

He said an effective public-private partnership was needed in which industry could share their resources such as machineries and technical expertise in order to help train more local students.

“Now more than ever, it is crucial that the private sector comes forward and helps the government by sponsoring, or donating equipment or machinery to TVET institutions.

“Alternatively companies may also provide opportunities for TVET students to be trained using machines and equipment available at their facilities,” he said.

Lim said in other countries such India and Germany, there was specific legislation that compelled companies to participate in TVET.

However, the Bagan member of parliament did not elaborate on whether the government had plans to implement such legislation.

Lim said the government hoped that the industry and TVET institutions would voluntarily collaborate across their entire value chain of TVET, if possible from student recruitment to curriculum design, delivery and even job placement.

“Companies should also consider offering scholarships especially for students to encourage more students to join TVET programmes. For this year, such contributions are eligible for tax deduction,” he said.

Source: www.nst.com.my

Comment: Another option is to learn TVET courses via online (blended with workshops) that makes it easier for working adults to learn anytime, anywhere.